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Spanish Variations

Spanish  Variations

Variatlons main Vaiations between Ganadores del Grand Slam the Spanish Variations of Spanish is the pronunciation. Canarian Spanish is Varriations Spanish Variations on the Canary Islands. Around seven million Mexicans speak one of the many indigenous languages of the area, contributing to the exchange of words and expressions between languages. LATAM Spanish is considered to be a broader variant than Mexican Spanish.

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Spanish Variations -

Over several centuries, It is influenced by indigenous languages like Quechua and Mapudungun and by other European languages from the waves of immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries. Chilean Spanish dialects have distinctive pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and slang usage that differ from standard Spanish or neighboring countries.

It is also notorious for its high use of slang and local expressions, making it tricky and complicated for foreigners to understand. There are many varieties of Spanish spoken in Colombia. The term is more geographical than linguistic relevance since the dialects spoken in the various regions of Colombia are diverse.

Several other dialects are spoken in different parts of South America, namely Spanish of Paraguayo, Amazónico, Uruguayo, Venezolano, Bolivian , and many more.

Almost all Latin Americans understand each other pretty well without complaining about the accent. The Philippines has about 2 million Chavacano speakers, a Spanish-based creole that developed in the southern Philippines. Due to their historical roots, the Spanish have left their presence in the Filipino culture during the colonial era.

There are thousands of Spanish loanwords in the Filipino languages. Because of the traditional base and the similarities shared by these languages, It is admitted in written legal documents and courts of law. This dialect represents the only official Spanish spoken in Africa; it has incorporated some vocabulary and pronunciation patterns from native Guineans and immigrant Germans of Cameroon.

Like any other language, there are countless Spanish dialects in the world. Spanish speakers from different countries can even communicate effectively without knowing the specific language.

However, it is important to remember that spoken Spanish is not identical in the different regions of the Spanish state. Its pronunciation and linguistic characteristics can vary to a very significant extent from one place to another.

However, maintaining a unified, standard version of the Spanish language and its written form is guaranteed by the Real Academia de la Lengua Española. The Academia sets the rules to follow, standard variant to speak and write in a way accepted by all the different Spanish speakers.

If you are Looking for Spanish Courses in Noida , you can contact us. Your email address will not be published. Table Of Contents. How many different dialects of Spanish are there?

How many Spanish dialects are there in Spain? Spanish Dialects and Varieties in Latin America 1. Mexican Spanish Español Mexicano 2. Central American Spanish español o Castellano Centroamericano 3. Andean Spanish Español Andino 4. Rioplatense Spanish Español Rioplatense 5. Caribbean Spanish Español Caribeño 6.

Chilean Spanish Español Chileno 7. Colombian Spanish Español Colombiano C. Spanish in the Philippines Español Filipino D. Spanish in Equatorial Guinea Español Ecuatoguineano Final Thought. Share your love. About The Author. I write at languagenext. com, studyfrenchspanish.

com, joyofkorean. com, joyofchinese. Most voseo speakers use both the pronoun vos and its historically corresponding verb forms e. vos tenés , 'you have'. But some dialects use the pronoun tú with " vos verb forms" verbal voseo — tú tenés , while others use vos with " tú verb forms" pronominal voseo — vos tienes.

In most dialects the familiar second person singular pronoun is tú from Latin tū , and the formal pronoun is usted usually considered to originate from vuestra merced , meaning 'your grace' or, literally, 'your mercy'.

In a number of regions in the Americas, tú is replaced by another pronoun, vos , and the verb conjugation changes accordingly see details below. Spanish vos comes from Latin vōs , the second person plural pronoun in Latin.

In any case, there is wide variation as to when each pronoun formal or familiar is used. In Spain, tú is familiar for example, used with friends , and usted is formal for example, used with older people. In recent times, there has been a noticeable tendency to extend the use of tú even in situations previously reserved for usted.

Meanwhile, in several countries in parts of Middle America , especially, Costa Rica and Colombia , the formal usted is also used to denote a closer personal relationship.

Many Colombians and some Chileans, for instance, use usted for a child to address a parent and also for a parent to address a child. Some countries, such as Cuba and the Dominican Republic, prefer the use of tú even in very formal circumstances, and usted is seldom used.

Meanwhile, in other countries, the use of formal rather than familiar second-person pronouns denotes authority. In Peru, for example, senior military officers use tú to speak to their subordinates, but junior officers use only usted to address their superior officers. Using the familiar tú , especially in contexts where usted was to be expected, is called tuteo.

The corresponding verb is tutear a transitive verb , the direct object being the person addressed with the pronoun. The verb tutear is used even in those dialects whose familiar pronoun is vos and means 'to treat with the familiar second-person pronoun'. Pronominal voseo , the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú , is the prevalent form of the familiar second person singular pronoun in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay.

In Guatemala and Uruguay, vos and tú are used concurrently, but vos is much more common. The name Rioplatense is applied to the dialect of Spanish spoken around the mouth of the Río de la Plata and the lower course of the Paraná River, where vos , not tú , is invariably used, with the vos verb forms vos tenés.

The area comprises the most populous part of Argentina the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe as well as an important part of Uruguay, including Montevideo, the capital. In Ecuador, vos is the most prominent form throughout the Sierra region of the country, though it does coexist with usted and the lesser-used tú.

In this region, vos is regarded as the conversational norm, but it is not used in public discourse or the mass media. Based on these factors, speakers can assess themselves as being equal, superior, or inferior to the addressee, and the choice of pronoun is made on this basis, sometimes resulting in a three-tiered system.

Ecuadorians of the Highlands thus generally use vos among familiarized equals or by superiors in both social status and age to inferiors; tú among unfamiliarized equals, or by a superior in age but inferior in social status; and usted by both familiarized and unfamiliarized inferiors, or by a superior in social status but inferior in age.

Vos can be heard throughout most of Chile, Bolivia, and a small part of Peru as well, but in these places it is regarded as substandard. It is also used as the conversational norm in the Paisa Region and the southwest region of Colombia, in Zulia State Venezuela , in Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and the state of Chiapas in Mexico.

In Chile, even though tú is the prestige pronoun among educated speakers, the use of "verbal voseo ", i. tú podís is widespread. In Colombia, the choice of second person singular varies with location. In most of inland Colombia especially the Andean region , usted is the pronoun of choice for all situations, even in speaking between friends or family; but in large cities especially Bogotá , the use of tú is becoming more accepted in informal situations, especially between young interlocutors of opposite sexes and among young women.

In Valle del Cauca Cali , Antioquia Medellín and the Pacific coast, the pronouns used are vos and usted. On the Caribbean coast mainly Barranquilla and Cartagena , tú is used for practically all informal situations and many formal situations as well, usted being reserved for the most formal environments.

Sumercé comes from su merced 'your mercy'. In parts of Spain, a child used to use not tú but usted to address a parent. Today, however, this usage is unusual. Among the factors for the ongoing replacement of usted by tú are the new social relevance of youth and the reduction of social differences.

In particular, it has been attributed [ by whom? By contrast, Spanish leftists of the early 20th century would address their comrades as usted as a show of respect and workers' dignity.

According to Joan Coromines , by the 16th century, the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun had been reduced to rural areas of Spain, which were a source of many emigrants to the New World, and so vos became the unmarked form in many areas of Latin America. A slightly different explanation is that in Spain, even if vos as a singular originally denoted the high social status of those who were addressed as such monarchs, nobility, etc.

Those who used vos were people of the lower classes and peasants. When the waves of Spanish immigrants arrived to populate the New World, they primarily came from these lower classes.

In the New World, wanting to raise their social status from what it was in Spain, they demanded to be addressed as vos. Through the widespread use of vos in the Americas, the pronoun was transformed into an indicator of low status not only for the addresser but also for the addressee.

Conversely, in Spain, vos is now considered a highly exalted archaism virtually confined to liturgy. Speakers of Ladino still use vos as it was used in the Middle Ages, to address people higher on the social ladder. The pronoun usted had not been introduced to this dialect of Spanish when the Jews were expelled from Spain in so vos is still used in Ladino much as usted is used in modern Spanish.

A variant of usted , vusted , can be heard in Andean regions of South America. Other, less frequent forms analogous to usted are vuecencia short for vuestra excelencia , and usía from vuestra señoría. There is a traditional assumption that Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are derived from those corresponding to vosotros.

Alternatively, the article argues that the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are synchronically derived from underlying representations that coincide with those corresponding to the non-honorific second person singular tú.

The proposed theory requires the use of only one special rule in the case of Chilean voseo. This rule—along with other rules that are independently justified in the language—makes it possible to derive synchronically all Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms in a straightforward manner.

The article additionally solves the problem posed by the alternate verb forms of Chilean voseo such as the future indicative e. vay a bailar 'will you dance? In Standard European Spanish the plural of tú is vosotros and the plural of usted is ustedes.

In Hispanic America vosotros is not used, and the plural of both tú and usted is ustedes. This means that speaking to a group of friends a Spaniard will use vosotros , while a Latin American Spanish speaker will use ustedes.

Although ustedes is semantically a second-person form, it is treated grammatically as a third-person plural form because it originates from the term vuestras mercedes 'your [pl.

vuestra merced. In very formal contexts, however, the vosotros conjugation can still be found. An example is the Mexican national anthem , which contains such forms as aprestad and empapad.

In some parts of Andalusia the lands around the Guadalquivir river and western Andalusia , the usage is what is called ustedes-vosotros : the pronoun ustedes is combined with the verb forms for vosotros.

However, this sounds extremely colloquial and most Andalusians prefer to use each pronoun with its correct form. In Ladino , vosotros is still the only second person plural pronoun, since ustedes does not exist.

Each second-person pronoun has its historically corresponding verb forms. The formal usted and ustedes , although semantically second person, take verb forms identical with those of the third person, singular and plural respectively, since they are derived from the third-person expressions vuestra merced and vuestras mercedes 'your grace[s]'.

General statements about the use of voseo in different localities should be qualified by the note that individual speakers may be inconsistent in their usage, and that isoglosses rarely coincide with national borders.

That said, a few assertions can be made:. As for the second person familiar plural , it can be said that northern and central Spain use vosotros and its verb forms vosotros habláis , 'you [pl.

Usage in western Andalusia includes the use of ustedes with the traditional vosotros verb form ustedes habláis. In Ladino , the second-person pronouns are quite different from those of Spain and Latin America. The forms usted and ustedes had not yet appeared in when the Jews were expelled from Spain.

Speakers of Ladino still use vos as it was used in the Middle Ages as a singular to address people higher on the social ladder. And vosotros is the only second person plural pronoun. In Ladino the formal singular for 'you speak' is vos avláis pronounced [aˈvlaʃ] , and the same verb form serves for the plural, both formal and familiar: vosotros avláis [voˈzotros aˈvlaʃ].

The subjunctive 'that you lose formal singular ' is que vos pedráis [ke vos peˈdraʃ] , while the plural both formal and familiar is que vosotros pedráis [ke voˈzotros peˈdraʃ]. The formal singular imperative 'come' is venid or vení , and the same form serves as the plural imperative, both formal and familiar.

In many dialects in northern and central Spain, including that of Madrid, the indirect object pronouns le and les may be used in place of the direct object pronouns lo , la , los , and las in a phenomenon known as leísmo. Leísmo typically occurs when the direct object refers to a person or personalized thing, such as a pet, and is most commonly used for male direct objects.

The opposite phenomenon also occurs in the same regions of Spain and is known as loísmo or laísmo. In loísmo , the direct object pronouns lo and los are used in contexts where the indirect object pronouns le and les would normally be prescribed; this usually occurs with a male indirect object. In laísmo , la and las are used instead of le and les when referring to a female indirect object.

In a broad sense, when expressing an action viewed as finished in the past, speakers and writers in most of Spain use the perfect tense—e. The perfect is also called the " present perfect " and, in Spanish, pasado perfecto or pretérito perfecto compuesto.

It is described as a "compound" tense compuesto in Spanish because it is formed with the auxiliary verb haber plus a main verb. The preterite , also called the "simple past" and, in Spanish, pretérito indefinido or pretérito perfecto simple , is considered a "simple" tense because it is formed of a single word: the verb stem with an inflectional ending for person, number, etc.

The choice between preterite and perfect, according to prescriptive grammars from both Spain [51] [52] and the Americas, [53] is based on the psychological time frame—whether expressed or merely implied—in which the past action is embedded. If that time frame includes the present moment i.

if the speaker views the past action as somehow related to the moment of speaking , then the recommended tense is the perfect he llegado.

But if the time frame does not include the present—if the speaker views the action as only in the past, with little or no relation to the moment of speaking—then the recommended tense is the preterite llegué.

This is also the real spontaneous usage in most of Spain. Following this criterion, an explicit time frame such as hoy 'today' or este año 'this year' includes the present and thus dictates the compound tense: Este año he cantado 'I have sung this year'.

Conversely, a time frame such as ayer 'yesterday' or la semana pasada 'last week' does not include the present and therefore calls for the preterite: La semana pasada canté 'I sang last week'.

However, in most of the Americas, and in the Canary Islands, the preterite is used for all actions viewed as completed in the past. It tends to be used in the same way in those parts of Spain where the local languages and vernaculars do not have compound tenses, that is, the Galician -speaking area and the neighbouring Astur-Leonese -speaking area.

In most of Spain, the compound tense is preferred in most cases when the action described is close to the present moment:. Prescriptive norms would rule out the compound tense in a cuando -clause, as in the second example above.

Meanwhile, in Galicia, León, Asturias, Canary Islands and the Americas, speakers follow the opposite tendency, using the simple past tense in most cases, even if the action takes place at some time close to the present:.

For some speakers of Latin American Spanish, the compound tense can sound affected, bookish, or foreign. In Latin America one could say, " he viajado a España varias veces " 'I have traveled to Spain several times' , to express a repeated action, as in English.

But to say El año pasado he viajado a España would sound ungrammatical as it would also be in English to say "last year, I have traveled to Spain", as last year implies that the relevant time period does not include the present.

In Spain, speakers use the compound tense when the period of time considered has not ended, as in he comprado un coche este año 'I have bought a car this year'.

Meanwhile, a Latin American Spanish speaker is more likely to say, " compré un carro este año " 'I bought a car this year'. Different regional varieties of Spanish vary in terms of vocabulary as well.

This includes both words that exist only in certain varieties especially words borrowed from indigenous languages of the Americas , and words that are used differently in different areas.

Among words borrowed from indigenous languages are many names for food, plants and animals, clothes, and household object, such as the following items of Mexican Spanish vocabulary borrowed from Nahuatl. In addition to loan words, there are a number of Spanish words that have developed distinct senses in different regional dialects.

That is, for certain words a distinct meaning, either in addition to the standard meaning or in place of it, exists in some varieties of Spanish.

The different dialects and accents do not block cross-understanding among relatively educated speakers. Meanwhile, the basilects have diverged more. The unity of the language is reflected in the fact that early imported sound films were dubbed into one version for the entire Spanish-speaking market.

Currently, films not originally in Spanish usually Hollywood productions are dubbed separately into two accents: one for Spain and one for the Americas using a neutral standardized accent without regionalisms. Some high-budget productions, however, such as the Harry Potter film series , have had dubs in three or more of the major accents.

On the other hand, productions from another Spanish-language country are seldom dubbed. Exceptionally, the made-in-Spain animated features Dogtanian and the Three Muskehounds and The World of David the Gnome , as well as TV serials from the Andean countries such as Karkú Chile , have had a Mexican dub.

The popularity of telenovelas and music familiarizes the speakers with other accents of Spanish. Prescription and a common cultural and literary tradition, among other factors, have contributed to the formation of a loosely defined register which can be termed Standard Spanish or "Neutral Spanish" , which is the preferred form in formal settings, and is considered indispensable in academic and literary writing, the media, etc.

This standard tends to disregard local grammatical, phonetic and lexical peculiarities, and draws certain extra features from the commonly acknowledged canon , preserving for example certain verb tenses considered "bookish" or archaic in most other dialects. Mutual intelligibility in Spanish does not necessarily mean a translation is wholly applicable in all Spanish-speaking countries, especially when conducting health research that requires precision.

For example, an assessment of the applicability of QWB-SA 's Spanish version in Spain showed that some translated terms and usage applied US-specific concepts and regional lexical choices and cannot be successfully implemented without adaptation.

Contents move to sidebar hide. seseo and ceceo. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons. Dialects of Spanish. This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet IPA. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

A manuscript of the Cantar de mio Cid , 13th century. This article or section should specify the language of its non-English content, using {{ lang }}, {{ transliteration }} for transliterated languages, and {{ IPA }} for phonetic transcriptions, with an appropriate ISO code.

Wikipedia's multilingual support templates may also be used. See why. April Norteño del Nor- este eastern northern variant. Norteño del Nor- oeste western northern variant. Bajacaliforniense peninsular northern variant. Occidental western variant.

Bajío lowlands variant. Altiplano central variant. Sureño Central central southern variant. Costeño coastal variant.

Chiapaneco south-eastern variant, similar to Central American Spanish. Yucateco eastern variant. Main article: Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives. Main article: Yeísmo. Main article: Judaeo-Spanish. primarily spoken. spoken, alternating with tuteo.

Main articles: Leísmo and Loísmo. El Mundo in Spanish. Retrieved Introducción a la lingüística hispánica in Spanish 3rd ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

ISBN Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies. doi : ISSN S2CID Journal of the International Phonetic Association. International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

Lletres asturianes: Boletín Oficial de l'Academia de la Llingua Asturiana in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on 22 June Retrieved 20 November WCCFL Proceedings of the 23rd West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics.

Some of the Juega póker en español Spanish Variations of the Spanish language are quite divergent from Spaniish another, especially in pronunciation and S;anish, and less so in grammar. While all Spanish dialects adhere Spanisn approximately the same Spanish Variations standard, all spoken varieties differ from the written Vagiations, Spanish Variations different degrees. There Spanish Variations differences between European Spanish also called Peninsular Spanish and the Spanish of the Americasas well as many different dialect areas both within Spain and within the Americas. Chilean and Honduran Spanish have been identified by various linguists as the most divergent varieties. Among grammatical features, the most prominent variation among dialects is in the use of the second-person pronouns. In Hispanic America the only second-person plural pronoun, for both formal and informal treatment, is ustedeswhile in most of Spain the informal second-person plural pronoun is vosotros with ustedes used only in the formal treatment.

Some Varitaions the regional varieties of the Spanishh language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and Spaanish, and less Variatiins Spanish Variations grammar. While all Spanish dialects adhere to approximately the same written standard, all spoken varieties differ from Variatuons written variety, to different degrees.

There are differences between European Spanish also called Peninsular Spanish and the Spanish of the Americas Spaish, as well as many Variatiosn dialect areas both within Spain and Spanish Variations the Americas.

Chilean and Honduran Variation have been identified by various linguists as the most Varixtions varieties. Among grammatical features, the most Varlations variation among Guía de Juego Responsable is in the use of the second-person pronouns.

In Hispanic America the only second-person plural pronoun, for both formal and informal treatment, is ustedeswhile in most of Spain Spainsh informal second-person plural pronoun is vosotros with ustedes used only in the formal Varuations. For the second-person Spanksh familiar pronoun, Spaanish American dialects use tú and Spxnish associated Spanish Variations formsVariatjons others use either vos see voseo or both tú and vos [ citation needed ] which, together with ustedcan Sanish for a possible three-tiered Spanlsh of formalities.

There are significant differences Variatiobs vocabulary among regional varieties of Spanish, particularly in Variationns domains of food products, everyday objects, and Sppanish and many American varieties show considerable lexical influence from Native American Vafiations.

While there is no Spanish Variations consensus on how Latin American Spanish dialects should Spanisj classified, the following Spanlsh which takes into account phonological, grammatical, socio-historical, and language Variationw data Oportunidades de ganar gigantes a reasonable approximation of Variiations American dialect variation: [5] [6].

While there are other types of regional variation in Peninsular Spanish, and the Spanish of bilingual regions Variatios influence from Varitaions languages, the greatest division in Old World varieties is from north to Variatoins, with a central-northern dialect north of Madrid, an Andalusian dialect to the south, and an intermediary region between Spaniah two most Spanish Variations dialect zones.

Meanwhile, the Canary Islands constitute their own dialect Spanisy, whose speech Spannish most closely Vatiations to that of western Andalusia.

The non-native Spanish in Variaions Guinea and Western Sahara formerly Spanish Sahara has been Spabish mainly by varieties from Spain. Spanish Sapnish also an official language in Equatorial Guinea, Spanjsh many Varistions speak it fluently.

Though no longer an official Carreras de caballos en vivo y en directo Spanish Variations the Philippines Tecnología de juego progresiva, Philippine Spanish has had SSpanish tremendous influence on Contar cartas native tongues of the archipelago, including Filipino.

Spanisg Spanish Experiencia de apuestas inmersiva in Gibraltar is essentially not different from Variatiosn neighboring areas in Spain, except Variatiions code-switching with English and Premios y regalos unique Spanish Variations items.

It is frequently blended with English as a sort of Spanglish known as Spanisb. Judaeo-Spanisha " Vaeiations language ", encompasses a number Spanush linguistic varieties based mostly on 15th-century Spaish it is still spoken in a few small communities, mainly aVriations Israel, but also in Turkey and a number of Vqriations countries.

Bingo y estrategia Spanish Variations be considered either a very divergent dialect of Vraiations, retaining features from Old Spanish, [12] or a separate language. The maintenance Spsnish Spanish Variations contrast is called distinción in Spanish.

In areas that Varjations not distinguish them, they are Spainsh realized as [s]though in parts of southern Andalusia the realization is Vaariations to [θ] ; in Variatilns uniform use of [θ] is called ceceo and uniform use of [s] seseo. In VVariations with seseo the words casa 'house' and caza Vriations are pronounced as homophones generally [ˈkasa]whereas in dialects with distinción they are pronounced differently as [ˈkasa] and [ˈkaθa] respectively.

The symbol [s] stands for a voiceless sibilant like the s of English sick Variiations, while [θ] represents a voiceless interdental fricative like the th of English think.

In some cases where the phonemic Variatipns would render words homophonic in the Apuestas a La Liga Santander, one member of the Vaiations is Spanisb replaced Vafiations a synonym or derived form—e.

caza replaced by caceríaor cocer 'to boil'homophonic with coser 'to sew'replaced by cocinar. For more on Vaeiationssee González-Bueno.

Vagiations merger results in the words calló 'silenced' and cayó 'fell' being pronounced the same, Spanixh they remain distinct in dialects Spaanish have not undergone the merger. The use of the merged phoneme is called Variatiions yeísmo ".

In the area around the Río de la Plata ArgentinaUruguaythis phoneme is pronounced as a palatoalveolar sibilant fricative, either as voiced [ VVariations ] or, especially by young speakers, Sppanish voiceless [ ʃ ].

In northern and central Spain, and in the Paisa Region of Colombiaas well as in some other, isolated dialects e. However, in most of Andalusia, in Spaniwh few other areas in Spsnish Spain, and in most of Latin America it is instead Varaitions as a lamino-alveolar or dental sibilant.

Before Lotería y apuestas deportivas consonants, Spanish Variations, Variayions z ~ Vaiations ] Slanish more common in natural and colloquial speech and oratorical pronunciation, [s ~ Variatins ] is mostly pronounced in emphatic and slower speech.

In some Variarions of Latin American Spanish notably Honduran and Salvadoran Spanish this may also occur intervocalically within an individual word—as with nosotroswhich may be pronounced Spanksh [noˈhotɾoh] —or even Spsnish initial position. For instance, todos los cisnes son blancos 'all the swans are white'can be pronounced [ˈtoðoh loh ˈθihne Vzriations som ˈblaŋkoh]or even [ˈtɔðɔ lɔ ˈθɪɣnɛ Spanisb ˈblæŋkɔ] Standard Peninsular Varaitions [ˈtoðoz los ˈθizne s som ˈblaŋkos]Latin American Spanish: [ˈtoðoz lo s ˈsizne s som ˈblaŋkos].

This vowel contrast is sometimes reinforced by vowel harmonyso that casas [ˈkæsæ] 'houses' differs from casa [ˈkasa] not only by the lack of the final [s] in the former word but also in the quality of both of the vowels. In oratorical pronunciation, it depends on the country and speaker; if the Spanish speaker chooses to pronounces all or most of syllable-final [s], it is mostly voiced to [ z ] before voiced consonants.

One may hear pues 'well then ' pronounced [ps̩]. Some efforts to explain this vowel reduction link it to the strong influence of Nahuatl and other Native American languages in Mexican Spanish. In the 16th century, as the Spanish colonization of the Americas was beginning, the phoneme now represented by the letter j had begun to change its place of articulation from palato-alveolar [ʃ] to palatal [ç] and to velar [x]like German ch in Bach see History of Spanish and Old Spanish language.

In southern Spanish dialects and in those Hispanic American dialects strongly influenced by southern settlers e. Caribbean Spanishrather than the velar fricative [x]the sound was backed all the way to [h]like English h in hope.

Glottal [h] is nowadays the standard pronunciation for j in Caribbean dialects Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican as well as in mainland Venezuela, in most Colombian dialects excepting Pastuso dialect that belongs to a continuum with Ecuadorian Spanishmuch of Central America, southern Mexico, [18] the Canary Islands, Extremadura and western Andalusia in Spain; in the rest of the country, [x] alternates with a "raspy" uvular fricative [χ]sometimes pronounced with a simultaneous voiceless uvular trill.

In standard European Spanish, as well as in many dialects in the Americas e. when followed by a pause or by an initial vowel in the following wordalveolar, like English [n] in pen. When followed by a consonant, it assimilates to that consonant's place of articulation, becoming dental, interdental, palatal, or velar.

In these dialects, words such as pan 'bread' and bien 'well' may sound like pang and byeng to English-speakers. Velar -n is common in many parts of Spain Galicia, León, Asturias, Murcia, Extremadura, Andalusia, and Canary Islands.

In the Americas, velar -n is prevalent in all Caribbean dialects, Central American dialects, the coastal areas of Colombia, Venezuela, much of Ecuador, Peru, and northern Chile. In much of Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela except for the Andean region and Dominican Spanish, any pre-consonantal nasal can be realized [ŋ] ; thus, a word like ambientación can be pronounced [aŋbjeŋtaˈsjoŋ].

All varieties of Spanish distinguish between a "single-R" and a "double-R" phoneme. The single-R phoneme corresponds to the letter r written once except when word-initial or following lnor s and is pronounced as [ɾ]an alveolar flap —like American English tt in better —in virtually all dialects.

The double-R phoneme is spelled rr between vowels as in ca rr o 'car' and r word-initially e. r ey 'king', r opa 'clothes' or following lnor s e.

al r ededor 'around', en r iquecer 'enrich', en r ollar 'roll up', en r olar 'enroll', hon r a 'honor', Con r ado 'Conrad', Is r ael 'Israel'. In most varieties it is pronounced as an alveolar trill [r]and that is considered the prestige pronunciation.

Two notable variants occur additionally: one sibilant and the other velar or uvular. The trill is also found in lexical derivations morpheme-initial positionsand prefixation with sub and ab : abrogado [aβroˈɣa ð o]'abrogated', subrayar [suβraˈʝar]'to underline'.

The same goes for the compound word ciudad r ealeño from Ciudad Real. However, after vowels, the initial r of the root becomes rr in prefixed or compound words: prorrogar, infrarrojo, autorretrato, arriesgar, puertorriqueño, Monterrey. In syllable-final position, inside a word, the tap is more frequent, but the trill can also occur especially in emphatic [20] or oratorical [21] style with no semantic difference, especially before lmnstor d —thus arma 'weapon' may be either [ˈaɾma] tap or [ˈarma] trillperla 'pearl' may be either [ˈpeɾla] or [ˈperla]invierno 'winter' may be [imˈbjeɾno] or [imˈbjerno]verso 'verse' may be [ˈbeɾso] or [ˈberso]and verde 'green' [ˈbeɾðe] or [ˈberðe].

In word -final position the rhotic will usually be: either a trill or a tap when followed by a consonant or a pause, as in amo [r ~ ɾ] paterno 'paternal love' and amo [r ~ ɾ]with the tap being more frequent and the trill before lmnstdor sometimes a pause; or a tap when followed by a vowel-initial word, as in amo [ɾ] eterno 'eternal love' Can be a trill or tap with a temporary glottal stop in emphatic speech: amo [rʔ ~ ɾʔ] eternowith trill being more common.

Morphologically, a word-final rhotic always corresponds to the tapped [ɾ] in related words. The pronunciation of the double-R phoneme as a voiced strident or sibilant apical fricative is common in New Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Paraguay; in western and northern Argentina; and among older speakers in highland areas of Colombia.

Nonetheless, other researchers have pointed out that sibilant rr in the Americas may not be an autonomous innovation, but rather a pronunciation that originated in some northern Spanish dialects and then was exported to the Americas.

Spanish dialects spoken in the Basque Country, Navarre, La Rioja, and northern Aragon [26] regions that contributed substantially to Spanish-American colonization show the fricative or postalveolar variant for rr especially for the word-initial rr sound, as in Roma or rey.

This is also pronounced voiceless when the consonants after the trill are voiceless and speaking in emphatic speech; it is written as [ r̝̊ ], it sounds like a simultaneous [r] and [ʃ].

In Andean regions, the alveolar trill is realized as an alveolar approximant [ɹ] or even as a voiced apico-alveolar [ ɹ̝ ]and it is quite common in inland Ecuador, Peru, most of Bolivia and in parts of northern Argentina and Paraguay.

The assibilated trill in this example is sometimes pronounced voiceless in emphatic and slower speech: las rosas [la ˈr̝̊osas] 'the roses'Is r ael [iˈr̝̊ael]. The other major variant for the rr phoneme—common in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic—is articulated at the back of the mouth, either as a glottal [h] followed by a voiceless apical trill [ r̥ ] or, especially in Puerto Rico, with a posterior articulation that ranges variously from a velar fricative [ x ] to a uvular trill [ ʀ ].

The same situation happens in Belize and the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalinain these cases an influence of British English. An exception to this is the pronunciation of the x in some place names, especially in Mexico, such as Oaxaca and the name México itself, reflecting an older spelling see "Name of Mexico".

Some personal names, such as JavierJiménezRojasetc. Voicing is not contrastive in the syllable coda. The usual pronunciation of those words in most of Spain is [aðˈlantiko] and [aðˈleta].

The [ts] sound also occurs in European Spanish in loanwords of Basque origin but only learned loanwords, not those inherited from Roman timesas in abertzale. In BolivianParaguayanand Coastal Peruvian Spanish[ts] also occurs in loanwords of Japanese origin.

Spanish has a fricative [ʃ] for loanwords of origins from native languages in Mexican Spanish, loanwords of French, German and English origin in Chilean Spanish, loanwords of Italian, Galician, French, German and English origin in Rioplatense Spanish and Venezuelan SpanishChinese loanwords in Coastal Peruvian SpanishJapanese loanwords in Bolivian Spanish, Paraguayan Spanish, Coastal Peruvian SpanishBasque loanwords in Castilian Spanish but only learned loanwords, not those inherited from Roman timesand English loanwords in Puerto Rican Spanish and all dialects.

However, it is pronounced as a fricative [ ʃ ] in some Andalusian dialects, New Mexican Spanishsome varieties of northern Mexican Spanishinformal and sometimes formal Panamanian Spanishand informal Chilean Spanish.

In Chilean Spanish this pronunciation is viewed as undesirable, while in Panama it occurs among educated speakers. In Madrid and among upper- and middle-class Chilean speakers, it can be pronounced as the alveolar affricate [ ts ]. Furthermore, this opening of final mid vowels can affect other vowels earlier in the word, as an instance of metaphony :.

In the remaining dialects, the mid vowels have nondistinctive open and closed allophones determined by the shape of the syllable or by contact with neighboring phonemes. See Spanish phonology. In Spain, this is mainly found in Galicia and other northern areas. This type of raising carries negative prestige.

Judaeo-Spanish often called Ladino refers to the Romance dialects spoken by Jews whose ancestors were expelled from Spain near the end of the 15th century. rosa [ˈroza] 'rose'. Thus fazer 'to make' has gone from the medieval [faˈdzer] to [faˈzer]and plaça 'town square' has gone from [ˈplatsa] to [ˈplasa].

A related dialect is Haketiathe Judaeo-Spanish of northern Morocco. This too tended to assimilate with modern Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region.

Tetuani Ladino was brought to Oran in Algeria. Patterns of intonation differ significantly according to dialect, and native speakers of Spanish use intonation to quickly identify different accents. To give some examples, intonation patterns differ between Peninsular and Mexican Spanish, and also between northern Mexican Spanish and accents of the center and south of the country.

Argentine Spanish is also characterized by its unique intonation patterns. Language contact can affect intonation as well, as the Spanish spoken in Cuzco and Mallorca show influence from Quechua and Catalan intonation patterns, respectively, and distinct intonation patterns are found in some ethnically homogenous Afro-Latino communities.

Additionally, some scholars have historically argued that indigenous languages influenced the development of Latin America's regional intonation patterns. Spanish is a language with a " T—V distinction " in the second person, meaning that there are different pronouns corresponding to "you" which express different degrees of formality.

In most varieties, there are two degrees, namely "formal" and "familiar" the latter is also called "informal". For the second person formalvirtually all Spanish dialects of Spain and the Americas use usted and ustedes singular and plural respectively.

But for the second person familiarthere is regional variation—between tú and vos for the singular, and, separately, between vosotros and ustedes for the plural.

: Spanish Variations

Is Spanish more than one language?

A car in Spain is a "coche", whereas a "coche" in Latin America is a baby stroller. In Spanish, there are three ways to say "you"; the most common are tú familiar and usted formal. However, in many parts of Latin America you will also come across the word "vos". While its use is widespread, it also has wide differences in social consideration.

In some parts it is considered street language, appropriate to say but not correct when written. The use of "vos" and its corresponding verb conjugations is known collectively as "voseo".

It is used extensively in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and in parts of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Mexico. While peninsular Spanish has two ways of saying "you" in plural form such as when addressing a group; "you all" , Latin American Spanish has only one.

In Spain, both "vosotros" you all, informal and "ustedes" you all, formal are used, while in Latin America "ustedes" is always used. This also goes for the corresponding verb conjugations. For example, we'll conjugate the verb "hablar" to talk :. Believe it or not, variations in Spanish aren't found just between Spain and Latin America; there are also differences as you travel from region to region within single countries.

Learn more by clicking on the links below:. We use cookies to provide you with the best experience on our website. If you continue browsing, we consider that you accept their use.

You can get more information in our Cookies Policy. Language Resources. Spanish Culture. There is variation even within the dialect, with the regions within it bringing different words and phrases into the language.

For a more complete look at the nuances of this dialect, check out the guide from The Linguistics of Spanish. Mexican Spanish is commonly spoken in Mexico obviously! but also parts of the U. and Canada.

The dialect in this region was strongly influenced by indigenous languages: As Spanish settlers introduced the new language to the continent, local inhabitants added words from their own languages into it.

Around seven million Mexicans speak one of the many indigenous languages of the area, contributing to the exchange of words and expressions between languages.

To find out more about this dialect, check out our complete guide and learn some Mexican slang! Caribbean Spanish is spoken exclusively on the Caribbean islands and it closely resembles Canarian Spanish more on that in a bit and, to some extent, Andalusian.

However, since the Caribbean has seen a hodge-podge of cultures over time, you can also find influences in this dialect from African, English, French and indigenous languages of the area. Use the Learn Spanish con Salsa guide to brush up on this dialect before you take a Caribbean vacation.

You guessed it: This dialect is used in the geographic region of the Andes in western South America. The Andes is one of the longest continental mountain ranges and passes through many countries, but the language seems to be relatively consistent throughout its range.

In this region, the final letters of words are often pronounced clearly and the sounds of j and ll are audibly different, unlike in many other forms of Spanish.

One of the best ways to learn Spanish is through immersion, so if you want to take that approach with this dialect, you can study Andean Spanish in Otavalo , a town in the Ecuadorian Andes that is 2, meters above sea level. Central American Spanish is spoken throughout Guatemala , Costa Rica , Panama , Nicaragua , Honduras and El Salvador.

In this variation of Spanish, you will hear some s sounds morph into h sounds, while some other sounds get dropped altogether like j and, in certain cases, m. You can find some more information about the Central American Spanish dialect at The Linguistics of Spanish.

Canarian Spanish is spoken only on the Canary Islands. Due to its removed location from other Spanish-speaking countries, the dialect has had a chance to evolve and morph into a vastly different variation from traditional Spanish.

The dialect is closer to Caribbean and Andalusian Spanish than Castilian: it does not use the Spanish lisp or the vosotros form. It also has a few peculiarities of its own, like differences in word order and tense use. The people of the islands have added their own set of vocabulary to the language over time.

A few of the new words include rascado drunkenness , chachi nice and escachar to squash. For a complete list of keywords to learn, check out Speaking Latino.

This particular variation is spoken in Equatorial Guinea in Africa. In fact, it is the only country in Africa with Spanish as the official language!

Equatoguinean closely resembles the Spanish of the Iberian Peninsula and uses vosotros and ustedes interchangeably. However, it is also strongly influenced by the native African languages of the area, as well as French, Portuguese and even German. As a result, pronunciation is pretty different from other places around the world, sometimes even using a French-like r sound.

You might be surprised to not find Catalan on the list above. Catalan actually is not a dialect derived from Spanish. Many people mistakenly think that Catalan is a dialect of Spanish because it is spoken in Spain, but that is not the case. There are certainly some similarities due to their proximity to one another, but Catalan comes from Vulgar Latin and developed on its own with heavy influences from Spanish, French and Italian.

Its lexical distance from Italian is the same as from Spanish. If you are interested in learning more about Catalan, there are some useful YouTube resources. The easiest thing to do is to learn how to speak Spanish in the dialect that you are most likely to use.

Do not choose a specific dialect that you will never have the chance to actually speak. By Sarah Sharkey Last updated: June 1, Enter your e-mail address to get your free PDF! We hate SPAM and promise to keep your email address safe Close.

How many different dialects of Spanish are there? The article additionally solves the problem posed by the alternate verb forms of Chilean voseo such as the future indicative e. We hope to make every aspect of your learning journey both fun and informative, and we believe that with enough hard work and determination, you can master any variety of Spanish! April Based on my own experience of growing up learning Latin American Spanish and then traveling to Spain , this can be difficult to get used to at first, so it is crucial to choose what you learn based on what you will need. Murcian Spanish 4.
8 Types of Spanish Dialects—How It's Spoken Around the World Spanish Variations Ladino Vwriations, vosotros Spanish Variations still the only second Spanissh plural pronoun, since ustedes aVriations not exist. Técnicas de autocuidado para jugadores also goes for the corresponding verb conjugations. This Spansih Spanish Variations mostly spoken in the southern region of Spain. It is not surprising then to find that there are various Spanish dialects spoken throughout the country. In addition to the official languages, many other languages and dialects are spoken across Spain, including Asturian in Asturias and Silbo Gomeroa whistled version of Spanish used in the Canary Islands. eCommerce localization. Belizean Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Pachuco Salvadoran.
How Different Are Spanish Dialects Around the World?

Murcian is considered to be a very rarely used dialect. It seems to be fading into the other dialects of the region, so it is unlikely that you will encounter a speaker of this dialect. If you are planning to travel to the region, find out more about Murcia before you go!

Llanito is commonly known as a combination of Andalusian Spanish and UK English. You read that right! The dialect has a strong base in Spanish, but it frequently borrows words from English, Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese and several other Mediterranean languages. The dialect is used in the British territory of Gibraltar, and its location on the Iberian Peninsula and status as a British territory is a large reason for the unusual mix of influences it arose from.

If you split up the name of the dialect, you will understand where it comes from: the Río de la Plata. The river runs through parts of Argentina and Uruguay, so both countries use this dialect extensively.

One of the main features of this dialect is the medley of European words that have somehow made their way into it. You may hear words from German, French and English in an everyday Rioplatense conversation.

There is variation even within the dialect, with the regions within it bringing different words and phrases into the language. For a more complete look at the nuances of this dialect, check out the guide from The Linguistics of Spanish. Mexican Spanish is commonly spoken in Mexico obviously!

but also parts of the U. and Canada. The dialect in this region was strongly influenced by indigenous languages: As Spanish settlers introduced the new language to the continent, local inhabitants added words from their own languages into it.

Around seven million Mexicans speak one of the many indigenous languages of the area, contributing to the exchange of words and expressions between languages. To find out more about this dialect, check out our complete guide and learn some Mexican slang!

Caribbean Spanish is spoken exclusively on the Caribbean islands and it closely resembles Canarian Spanish more on that in a bit and, to some extent, Andalusian. However, since the Caribbean has seen a hodge-podge of cultures over time, you can also find influences in this dialect from African, English, French and indigenous languages of the area.

Use the Learn Spanish con Salsa guide to brush up on this dialect before you take a Caribbean vacation. You guessed it: This dialect is used in the geographic region of the Andes in western South America. The Andes is one of the longest continental mountain ranges and passes through many countries, but the language seems to be relatively consistent throughout its range.

In this region, the final letters of words are often pronounced clearly and the sounds of j and ll are audibly different, unlike in many other forms of Spanish. One of the best ways to learn Spanish is through immersion, so if you want to take that approach with this dialect, you can study Andean Spanish in Otavalo , a town in the Ecuadorian Andes that is 2, meters above sea level.

Central American Spanish is spoken throughout Guatemala , Costa Rica , Panama , Nicaragua , Honduras and El Salvador. It means that there is no one standard Spanish dialect in the world. There is a wide range of Spanish dialects around the globe.

The dialect spoken in Northern Spain is considered the most popular one. A dialect is defined in linguistic terms is a form or variety of a language spoken in a particular area. There are numerous Spanish versions or dialects around the world. However, one should not mix up the different dialects in Spain with the other languages spoken in the Peninsula: Spanish, Catalan, Occitan, Asturian, Basque, and Galician.

For example, Spanish has adopted unique characteristics in the different places where it is spoken throughout its evolution. The answer to the above question is: There are seven major Spanish dialects in the world.

Español Ibérico o Español Europeo is useful in Spain and neighboring countries. Some of the varieties are Andalusian in Andalusia , Canarian from the Canary Islands , Castilian in northern and central Spain including Madrid , Castrapo in Galicia , Castúo in the autonomous community of Extremadura.

Plus, there are Spanish by Catalan-speakers in Catalonia, the Valencian Community, the Balearic Islands , Andorra, and the easternmost areas of Aragon. The Murcian is another one Spoken mainly in the autonomous community of Murcia.

The different Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America also present national and regional variations. Thus, we can speak of an Argentinean, a Porteo from Buenos Aires city , a Chilean, or a Colombian dialect.

The main difference is between European and the Spanish spoken in Latin America. Still, there are also variances within each region.

The good news is that all Spanish dialects use the same written standard and are mutually intelligible. However, that does not mean that a single version of your Spanish document or survey will do in any Spanish-speaking country.

Mexico is the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. It is not surprising then to find that there are various Spanish dialects spoken throughout the country.

Mexican Spanish differs from the Spanish spoken in many other countries in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary. This dialect is spoken in Central America, such as Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the southern Mexican state of Chiapas, and the USA.

Andean Spanish is a Spanish dialect spoken in the central Andes, some parts of western Venezuela, southern Colombia, northern Chile, northwestern Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Spanish in the Andean regions of these countries tends to be clear, well-articulated, and straightforward.

Rioplatense is mainly based in Buenos Aires, Rosario, Santa Fe, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Bahía Blanca in Argentina, and Montevideo in Uruguay, the most populated cities in the dialectal area, along with their respective suburbs and the regions in between.

This dialect is heavily influenced by Italians who settled the area in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The varieties of Spanish used today reflect each community's history —including their political, linguistic, and cultural histories.

When the Spanish arrived in the Americas , they encountered people who spoke hundreds of languages, so now the Spanishes of each country include many words and characteristics from those languages. Some words even made it to English! As very often happens with dialects and accents, some of the words and pronunciations listed below won't be true for all regions and all speakers in the country—and some features we list for a particular country are common in other countries as well!

Argentinian Spanish Colombian Spanish Cuban Spanish Mexican Spanish Peruvian Spanish Spain Spanish. The stress of the verb changes to the last syllable , and you add an accent mark. For example, Aymara, Guaraní, Mapuche, Quechua, and Wichí are 5 indigenous languages spoken in different parts of Argentina today, and they come from 5 different language families.

There are also large communities of Italian, Arabic, and German speakers in Argentina, and Welsh is an official language in the southern province of Chubut!

It means "hey" when you start a sentence or conversation and "C'mon! It can have other meanings depending on the context! The word mate comes from Quechua and means "small pumpkin"…which was traditionally the container from which you would drink your hot yerba mate!

You might hear it between close friends and family to show affection! The indigenous languages of Colombia are very diverse and include languages from the Tupi-Guaraní family which stretches down all the way to Argentina , the Quechua family which includes languages spoken all along the western coast of South America , the Cariban family of languages along the Caribbean coast which is where the name "Caribbean" comes from!

And that's only the beginning! Another pronunciation you'll notice in Cuban Spanish is that "d" is often not pronounced between vowels, and this can happen with "b" as well. For example, pasado past is pronounced pasao, so el sao pasao is how you'd say el sábado pasado last Saturday.

Spanish adopted the Taíno words maíz corn , barbacoa barbecue , hurucán hurricane , and canoa canoe.

Spanish  Variations

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